Mott, Frank Luther.
A History of American magazines.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957-1968.
v. 2, p. 309, 417, 462; v. 3, p. 53, 100, 229-230, 511; v. 4, 49n, 84, 98, 120, 123, 359, 361, 408, 496, 537, 542, 612, 765; v. 5, p. 136, 248.

Peterson's Magazine
By 1870 it was advertising a thousand pages of letterpress a year, with fourteen steel plates, twelve double-page folding colored fashion plates, and a thousand wood engravings. There were five or six serials a year, monthly departments of fancywork, recipes, etc., and plenty of short stories and poems. "All the popular female writes of America" contributed, including, besides the old stand-bys, Mrs. Kirkland, Mrs. Southworth, Mrs. Rebecca Harding Davis, Louise Chandler Moulton, and Jane G. Austin. Fannie Hodgson, later to become so popular as Frances Hodgson Burnett, was a constant contributor; and Ella Wheeler made her debut in Peterson's. Beginning in 1878 and continuing for fifteen years, there was issued with each number, as a "supplement," a large folder pattern "for polonaise, cloak, mantilla, jacket, waist, or some other article of a lady's costume, in the very latest fashion."

Arthur's Home Magazine
Few well-known names are found. For some years Arthur and Miss Townsend apparently did nearly all of the magazine themselves. Lucy Larcom, Helen L. Bostwick, "Clara Augusta," and J. Starr Holloway became prominent contributors in the sixties; and Julia C.R. Dorr and Louise Chandler Moulton came in during the following decade, with Alice Cary and Ella Wheeler, those ubiquitous magazine poets. An entertaining contributor to the "Home Life and Character" department was one "Pipsissiway Potts."

Leslie's Weekly
In its second decade Leslie's printed serials by both English and American writers, but they were far from measuring up to those being published in Harper's Weekly, Appleton's Journal, or Every Saturday. Anthony Trollope headed the Leslie list of authors, and Mary Elizabeth Braddon, who had communicated to the world that terrible secret of Lady Audley's, was prominent in the paper's columns. Edward S. Ellis, one of the best of the dime-novel writers, was a Leslie serialist. Harriet Prescot Spofford wrote many short stories for the paper in the late sixties, as did Richard B. Kimball a few years later. John Esten Cooke and G.J. Whyte-Melville contributed serials in the latter seventies. Thomas W. Knox, one of the foremost travel writers of the time, did many sketches for Leslie's. Bayard Taylor, William Winter, and Ella Wheeler were among the paper's poets. But there were also many little-known writers who contributed mediocre work, as well as a good deal of anonymous material; and belles-lettres were, in general, subordinated to the varied fare of politics, the record of amusements and theaters, the news features, adn the "Town Gossip" which served, in the main, to set the table of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.

United States Monthly Magazine and Abbot's Monthly
A third monthly of some distinction was the United States Monthly Magazine, edited and published for two and a half years from July 1881, by Willys S. Abbot. It was also called Abbot's Monthly, was well printed, and published writers like Ella Wheeler and Jane Grey Swisshelm.

Ladies' Home Journal
Turning to Philadelphia, we find two or three distinctive new women's journals, one of which was to develop in later years an outstanding success. This was the Ladies' Home Journal, founded in 1883 by Cyrus H.K. Curtis. It was edited by Mrs. Curtis, who hid her identity more or less effectually under the pen name of "Mrs. Louisa Knapp." At first it was a cheaply printed eight-page small folio at fifty cents a year, and its first serial was a sentimental Ella Wheeler tale. But it continually enlisted more and better writers, it enlarged its size, its publisher developed a genius for promotion, and by the end of our period it was claiming a quarter of a million circulation.

Magazine Poetry
Ella Wheeler, who made a sensation with her Poems of Passion in 1883 and added Wilcox to her name the next year, wrote and sold to periodicals from two to eight poems a day from the age of nineteen on. [source: Lippincott's Magazine XXXVI, 539 (May 1886)].

The American Magazine.
The Monthly's [Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly] first serial was Joaquin Miller's The Pink Countess. Other contributors of fiction were Amelia E. Barr, Jane G. Austin, Harriet Prescott Spofford, and Horatio Alger. Popular magazinists like A.H. Guernsey, Frank Lee Benedict, Richard B. Kimball, and George M. Towle are frequently met in its pages. Ella Wheeler, not yet Wilcox or famous, Eden E. Rexford, C.W. Stoddard, Lucy H. Hooper, and Madison Cawein contributed verse.

Ainslee's Magazine
Always strongest in short fiction, it published some of O. Henry's earliest stories and many by Stephen Crane, Jack London, W.W. Jacobs, and so on. In the fall of 1902, an all-story policy was adopted, the number of pages doubled, and the price increased to fifteen cents. As "A Magazine of Clever Fiction," it continued until 1926.
[Footnote: After the change of policy in 1902, there were still some essays, verse, and theatrical notes by Harry Thurston Peck, H.C. Chatfield-Taylor, John Kendrick Bangs, Carolyn Wells, Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Frank Dempster Sherman, and Ella Wheeler Wilcox.]

A brilliant weekly of the New York of the nineties was Truth, a journal that suffered many changes but was at its best a lively, enterprising, and beautiful periodical. It began in 1881, with Maurice D. Flynn as manager, but it was suspended at the end of 1884. "Truth at present cannot be found without going to the bottom of a well," remarked Editor Creamer in his Citizen on January 3, 1855. It was virtually a new paper which began with the new year of 1886 under the management of Davison Dalziel. A ten-cent quarto of twenty-four pages, Truth was subtitled, "A Journal of Society, the Clubs, Sports, Drama, and the Fine Arts," and resembled Town Topics, its chief competitor, in appearance. At its beginning it experimented with suburban editions, but these were soon abandoned. In fact, the paper grew shabbier, its size was reduced by one-third, and at last Truth seemed to be, if not at the bottom of a well, at least crushed to earth. But in 1891 there was another reorganization, and enough money was advanced to make the periodical a rival of Puck in brillance. Like that great weekly, it came into the field of social satire -- though it still maintained its chronicle of high society. It enlisted some well-known authors -- especially those with reputations for sophisticated writing, like Edgar Saltus, Edgar Fawcett, William Le Queux, Ella Wheeler Wilcox -- and some personages in the public eye, like Lord Tennyson and Senators Chauncey M. Depew and John J. Ingalls.

The Independent (Kansas City)
It was notableduring a year or two for its humor, verse, and book reviews; among contributors were Ella Wheeler Wilcox, R.K. Munkittrick, Charles Battell Loomis, Albert Bigelow Paine, and Winifred Black.

"The Twilight of Poetry"
It is probable that the leading magazine poet of our entire period, if we take the number of contributions as our criterion, was Clinton Scollard, a professor of English at Hamilton College, who was well-nigh omnipresent in the magazines. Bliss Carman, Theodosia Garrison, and Ella Wheeler Wilcox were runners-up. The publishers of Mrs. Wilcox's Poems of Passion, a rather innocuous succes du scandale of the eighties, claimed that "not another book of poems published in this country has had so large a sale." [Footnote: "Advertisement on cover of Belford's Magazine, Nov. 1888."]

Literary Criticism and Book Reviewing
In its very first number Current Literature had remarked on "the literary sensation of the last two months," the production of "the audacious Virginia girl who wrote The Quick or the Dead, as Puck wittily puts it, 'with a low-necked pen.'" Wittily but misleadingly, for there was no naughty exposure in Miss Rives's passionate, melodramatic novelette, which had been published originally in Lippincott's Magazine for April 1888. Ella Wheeler Wilcox, who had suffered under the censorious lash five years earlier for her Poems of Passion, came to the defense of her sister-author with wild laudation in Current Literature:
Never before in the history of the civilized world has any author been so grossly misconstrued, so unfairly criticized, so shamelessly abused without cause as Amelie Rives, that marvellously endowed girl with the soul of Sappho and the brain of Shakespeare. [Footnote: A "syndicated letter" quoted in Current Literature, v. 2, p. 94, Feb. 1889.]

Fashion in Dress
But it took courage to depart from the conventional, for the new "fads" in dress were severely criticized. Boke wrote in the Ladies Home Journal that "the vast and overwheling majority of women...prefer to be womanly, and dress tastefully and prettily, as God intended women should dress." Life called attention to Ella Wheeler Wilcox's disapproval of bathing costumes and behavior: "Considering the scarcity of raiment on both men and women, it seems to her that they confabulate more than accords with strict decorum." [Footnote: Life, v. 10, p. 114, Sept. 1, 1887]  And this was in 1887, when women were always clothed from head to foot when they went on the beach or into the water.

The Chaperone and American Woman's Review
The Chaperone (1889-1911) was a St. Louis monthly edited by Annie L.Y. Swart, who later married her publisher, Samuel Orff. It changed its name to American Woman's Review in 1904. It was a well-printed and fairly well edited magazine, with good variety of home and literary departments. There were occasional contributions from such magazinists as Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Will N. Harben, and Eben E. Rexford.

On the whole, poetry was uncommon in the Arena, Joaquin Miller contributed two or three western pieces; Ella Wheeler Wilcox had several didactic poems well adapted to the magazine; Edgar Fawcett wrote some rather striking pieces in both verse and prose on New York crimes and foibles, and others who are as well forgotten did iambics and spondees occasionally for the Arena.

A change came in 1912, when the magazine dropped its muckraking and turned to a major reliance on fiction, which was to last for a third of a century. To be sure, Lewis and Russell kept, for a time, a brief "Progress and Politics" department at the back of the book, and there was a series of friendly articles about politicians by John Temple Gaves in 1914. Series of reminiscences by the widows of two Civil War generals -- John A. Logan and George E. Pickett -- indicate the trend toward feminine appeal. The full-page stage beauties were retired, after long service, but the durable Alan Dale was still allowed half a dozen illustrated pages about the theater. Ella Wheeler Wilcox was a preferred contributor of verse and essays until her death in 1919.

The Ladies' Home Journal
Thus the first issue appeared in December 1883, without serial numbering, "conducted by Mrs. Louisa Knapp." Louisa Knapp was Mrs. Curtis's maiden name. The supplement was called Ladies' Home Journal, to which was added in the second issue the words and Practical Housekeeper. The early numbers, small-folio in size, carried a woodcut illustration on the front page, an installment of a serial, a short story, and departments of recipes, household hints, fancywork, fashions in brief, and gardening. The first serial was a sentimental two-part story by Ella Wheeler, whose Poems of Passion had just brought her a kind of fame.
Bok began to improve the magazine as soon as he took over the editorship. He already had a considerable literary acquaintance, which he enlarged assiduously. T. De Witt Talmage, the popular preacher of the day, wrote an article for each number. Eben E. Rexford, author of "Silver Threads Among the Gold" and other sentimental ballads, did a department on flowers, for which, it was reported, he received one hundred and twenty-five dollars a column. Margaret E. Sangster, Julia War Howe, Grace Greenwood, Ella Wheeler Wilcox, and Robert J. Burdette were frequent contributors.

Munsey's Magazine
Munsey's first serial by a well-known writer was a great hit -- Hall Caine's "The Christian" (1896-1897). Soon after it had begun, F. Marion Crawford's "Corleone" started its course through the magazine, and serials by H. Rider Haggard and Anthony Hope followed. Juliet Wilbor Tompkins, Myrtyle Reed, and Grace MacGowan Cooke contributed short stories, though most Munsey writers in this field were unknowns. "Etchings" had by this time been turned into a poetry department, to which Frank Dempster Sherman, Bliss Carman, C.G.D. Roberts, Guy Wetmore Carryl, Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Clinton Scollard, and others contributed light verse.

Woman's Home Companion
There was verse by James Whitcomb Riley, Eugene Field ("Little Boy Blue," April 1, 1893), Susan Coolidge, Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Helen Hunt Jackson, and Frank Dempster Sherman.

Good Housekeeping
Good Housekeeping's poets included Amy Lowell, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Alfred Noyes, Ogden Nash, and Ella Wheeler Wilcox.

The Smart Set
Among the poets were the young Theodosia Garrison, the established Bliss Carmen and Clinton Scollard, and Ella Wheeler Wilcox, whose name still carried an aura of the shameless avowal that a former generation had found in her Poems of Passion.